Quick references


  • Separate structure (HTML) from styling (CSS)
  • Ensure content, structure, and links are perceivable without visuals
  • Important text should be in HTML
  • Include crucial images in HTML, not just CSS
  • Use CSS for non-essential images (e.g., logos)
  • Always use the "alt" attribute for images
  • Leave "alt" empty for decorative images
  • Use "alt" for images with nearby text
  • Provide proper examples of image markup




  • Maintain consistent semantic markup
  • Use headers and proper HTML5 semantics
  • Ensure content remains meaningful without CSS



Forms and tables

  • Label form elements properly
  • Use tables only for tabular data, not layout
  • Mark up tables for screen readers




Visual means

  • Combine colour with other visual indicators
  • Use color combinations that are distinguishable
  • Use semantic markup for meaning





  • Ensure adequate colour contrast
  • Specify text colour with background color
  • Follow contrast guidelines.




  • Enable text resizing up to 200%
  • Exceptions for images of text




Time-based media (audio and video files)

  • Provide alternatives for important content
  • Control audio levels and playback
  • Offer closed captions or transcripts




Graphs and charts

  • Make graphs and charts accessible





Scripts, applets, plugins

  • Include alternative content






  • Ensure keyboard accessibility
  • Add shortcuts for functions and navigation
  • Allow skipping menus
  • Maintain logical tab order
  • Highlight the focused element
  • Avoid keyboard traps





Enough time

  • Give users time for input review
  • Offer options to extend or disable time limits
  • Allow continuation after session expiration





Movement, blinking, auto-updating, and scrolling:

  • Limit flashing to prevent seizures
  • Allow user control over animations
  • Use predictability in element placement and behavior





  • Consider translations
  • Set the correct language code in HTML




Understandable text

  • Ensure text makes sense for screen readers
  • Use the title attribute for descriptions
  • Distinguish link text from title text
  • Maintain consistent link destinations with identical text






  • Choose readable fonts and sizes
  • Avoid excessive uppercase text
  • Use left-aligned text with appropriate line lengths
  • Provide adequate line spacing
  • Use headings, sub-headings, and lists to break up text